March 18, 2023
How was the ball pen invented?

First Life on Earth

Today is our 3rd chapter on this topic.

Here too we will learn how and from where some of the first objects on earth originated.

We will have more detailed chapters ahead.

Stay connected and get updates regularly.

Here I have put some in plain language.

I believe that it will be very useful for even your youngest students.

How was the pencil made?

Lead pencil is the old name for pencil. A pencil is a familiar object. Led is a purely English word.

Another legal meaning is lead. And lead is a type of metal. Rubbing lead on paper leaves a black mark.

In ancient times, people considered the pencil material to be lead and named it ‘lead pencil’. Actually, the fabric

of the pencil is not lead and not metal. A pencil is made from a mineral called graphite.

Pencil- smart puka
Pencil- smart puka

What is graphite?

There is an element called ember. Coal or charcoal is a special class of charcoal. Embers can exist in various states.

That is why it is called a polymorphic element. Diamond or graphite is found in small quantities in almost every country.

But Sinhala has the highest amount. Among other countries, the names of countries like Siberia, America, Italy, etc. are notable.

We are familiar with pencils since childhood. We didn’t even think about where this pencil came from and how it works for us. Where is its origin !!!

Many people may not know the origin of pencils. About 500 years ago, people first learned to make pencils.

But they were not at all like the pencils of today. The writing was done by dividing a block of

graphite into a number of narrow sections. Many days passed like this. Then a new method of covering thin

pieces of graphite with pieces of softwood was invented. Nowadays, graphite is used in many applications.

For this, graphite is prepared artificially. In 1896, a Pennsylvania scientist named Edward A. Kession discovered this method.

Graphite is obtained in a very simple way. Only three ingredients are required for this. Crushed coke, sand, and wood powder.

When these materials are mixed together and heated to about 4000 degrees Celsius in an electric furnace, pure graphite is prepared.

Nowadays, however, pencils are not made by cutting graphite. It simply involves grinding graphite and

mixing it with a small amount of clay into small molds. These molds produce long, narrow rods, which we

call pencil leads. Both soft and hard pellets are made by increasing or decreasing the amount of clay with graphite powder.

Moderate heat is applied to soften. If you want to make hard beads, you need to increase both the level of clay and the heat.

In this way, the pencil gradually took shape today.

Its use in modern life has increased and become modern.

How fountain pens are made:

Writing on stone, animal skin or paper began in ancient times. At that time, for writing or akaaki, people

used to apply ink with bird feathers or Bamboo sticks. And from this, it is assumed that ink was also

discovered at that time. But as civilization progressed, people were invented out of necessity.

More new things. There was also a revolution in the material of writing.

Ma’ad al-Mu’izz was the caliph of Egypt until 953 AD. Like other educated people of that time,

he also used to write by mixing ink with bird feathers. But while writing he was often in danger.

Ink would stick to hands. The clothes were also ruined. He thought if something could be made

that would have ink inside and there would be no problem while writing. He set out to make

the idea a reality. The pen-making work has started. It was supervised by Khalifa himself.

A pen with an ink reservoir is made. Such is the early history of the fountain pen. Before the 10th century

AD, people mainly wrote with bird feather ink. But the father of the modern

fountain pen is Lewis Waterman. He was an insurance company broker.  (HISTORY)

In 1883, Lewis signed a new insurance contract with a client. With a smile of satisfaction, he

handed the client a pen to sign. But the ink does not come out of the pen. A bit of ink came out after

trying a little better. And the contract paper was completely spoiled. Stunned, Lewis pulled himself

together instantly. He ran to his office. He brought a new contract. But by that time, another broker has

captured that client. Louis was very distressed at the loss of such a great opportunity to make money.

He left Daralgiri in anger and sadness. Feinstein dropped the pen for which he had to be harassed like this

and went to his brother’s workshop. He stubbornly made a type of shower pen that does not hurt the user anymore.

Using gravity and the principle of capillary tubes, Lewis Waterman invented the modern fine-tuned pen.

whose ink was ejected with the help of air and the flow of ink was natural and smooth. He named the new

pen ‘The Regular’. Within a few years, he got the government certificate. Soon after, he established a pen

factory in Montreal. The pen quickly spread around the world. But the advancement of technology has also

changed the field of writing. Ballpoint pens have taken over the space as an ink-filled nuisance.

Then maybe a new premise for writing will be discovered.

How was the Ball pen invented?

One of the contributions of technology is the ball pen. Ballpoint pens can be seen

everywhere in schools, colleges, and reading tables at home.

Everything discovered in the world has many mysterious and interesting facts behind it.

The invention of the ballpoint pen was similarly mysterious and amusing. In 1909, ballpoint pens were first used in America.

An American scientist thought that there were many problems with fountain pens.

When the ink runs out, you have to refill the ink. There are many troubles behind you.

After a few years of trying, he invented a pen. And named it ball pen. The first name of the ballpen was patented that year.

But before 1928 there was no improvement in the ball pen. The American Air Force conducted various

exercises in the air after the Tawan flight. Air force pilots could not mark anything or write instructions

with a fountain pen while in the air. There were reasons for that. The current development of the ball pen

comes from a US Air Force directive. Air Force pilots demanded special pens for their use.

Which can be used by the air force during the flight. They need a pen that won’t bleed even when air

pressure drops at different altitudes. Only a ballpoint pen can do that. After their demand, Balpen quickly improved.

Later, its pen became so popular that the general public also started using it. Since then we have been using ball pens.

About the base of the map:

You are going somewhere far away. You don’t have a very good idea about the place.

How will the location, and travel arrangements be? The distance to different places of interest is also not well understood.

Wouldn’t it be great to have a good map of the destination at hand?

You can set off without fear with a clear idea beforehand. Ancient maps are riddled with many errors.

After various tests and research, after numerous logic and mathematical applications, the maps were found to be

error-free. About 150 years after the birth of Christ, the Greek astronomer, and mathematician

Ptolemy developed an important guide to map size. That direction was called ‘geography’.

From there probably the beginning of the concept of modern geography. Making a map

requires a variety of skills. A person who prepares a map is called a cartographer. During the

Middle Ages Arabian cartographers made great improvements in map making. They preserved the

works of Ptolemy. By following Ptolemy’s method of cartography, they were able to draw maps that

were different and more modern than their contemporaries. By marking latitudes and longitudes

according to Ptolemy’s directions, they made the task of making and understanding maps easier.

The oldest map ever found was made more than 4,000 years ago.

This map is found in Babylon in modern Iraq. The first printed map was found in China.

It was printed in 1155. In the 13th century, detailed maps of sea routes were made in Europe. That map is called the ‘Portolan Chart’.

Cartographers faced a lot of problems in the beginning to make maps of the earth. It became

very difficult to map the globe accurately on flat paper. Cartographers then adopted a new strategy.

The technique is called ‘Projection’.

Using this method it is possible to accurately map the flat map of our planet.

Cartographers use circles to map the spherical Earth. Circles parallel to the meridian are

called lines of latitude. And the circles known as Lines of Longitude cross the North or

The South Pole and reach the Equator. The scale used on the map actually indicates the distance from one place to another.

So, before going to a new destination, find out the distance to another place.

So, before going to a new destination, collect the map of that place, so then you will not lose your way.

“The Mysterious Manuscript:”

A word is made up of a few letters and a sentence is formed if these phrases are arranged in a certain order.

In this way, the manuscript is created page after page after numerous sentences are compiled.

But is it possible to make a manuscript with numbers, geometric symbols, flowers, fruits, plants, and pictures of planets, and stars?

Yes, possible.

About a hundred years ago, a manuscript known as the ‘Voynikher Manuscript’ was found. which contains the use of all the symbols of the world.

There is no sign of everything from physics to medicine that is not in that manuscript. All in all, this is like a puzzle.

The nomenclature of this manuscript is also puzzling. The original owner of the manuscript was Rudolph II, Emperor of the Roman Empire.

Only Rudolph knew who made it. But it is heard that it was written by Roger Bacon, who has various miraculous powers.

When Emperor Rudolph II died in 1612 AD, it passed through many hands and fell to the famous scientist

Marcus Marquis, the vice-chancellor of the University of Prague.

It is about the year 1665.

It is clear from an American letter written to the American master scientist Amencius Fischer that the manuscript belongs to Roger Bacon.

Cicero’s Palace is 16 miles from Rome, Italy. This manuscript was found in the ruins of the palace.

Mondragon College legally sold it from Voynich in 1912. The opportunistic Voynikh too,

realizing its importance, kept the manuscript for himself. But one day it slips out of his hands.

Later, when research started on the manuscript, various rumors were created. One of them is that gold

can be made through aparsayana and this manuscript contains the main mantra for making gold.

Some also insist that it contains references to alchemy. However, researchers are still moving the

manuscript with the idea that there are some spiritual complex signals in what Yale University

researcher Robert Bruce discovered through reliable research. Who knows, maybe from here one-day people can know the real secret of immortality.

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