March 18, 2023
Where Science Came From: Part-02

Where Science Came From: Part-02

Where Science Came From

Earlier we tried to get a primary identity. Here we go a little deeper.

Going there, we will try to find out how modern civilization or the practice of science came to us.

The reflection of science that we see now did not happen overnight.

As a result of many ages of hard work and devotion, we have got each and everything.

From which era or where did this science emerge?

His exact whereabouts are still unknown to everyone. So what will we discuss or know here?

Here we will travel between the eras or times when history calls us by the hand.

First comes the Neolithic Age or Middle Age:

For the convenience of their research, scientists have divided the age of the planet into several periods based on the evolution of animals.

The last of these is the Neolithic or Mesozoic. This age was called the age of mammals. It started about 7 million years ago.

This new age is still going on in the world. The period before the Neolithic is called the Middle Ages.

This is the age of reptiles. Reptiles are animals that walk on their feet. The beginning of this era was 99 million years ago. This era ended 7 million years ago.

Who is called the archaic age?

The period before the Middle Ages is called the Paleolithic. This age was the early age of life.

It was during this period that the first fish appeared. This era lasted for about 34 million years.

Besides, the Earth has billions of years of history even before the Paleolithic era. During these billions of years, there were marine plants on Earth.

And before that, there was a time when there was no sign of plants or greenery in this world. Then the earth was a hot lump of metal.

This is how we know the history of the world.

Knowing this does not mean knowing very well. To know better we need to know more about the creation of this world.

Anyway earlier we talked about ancient human civilization. Intertwined with the history of this civilization is the history of human scientific practice.

Early Human Civilization:

Which is the oldest civilization in the world? But many people have many questions and disagreements about this.

Some say that the Egyptian civilization on the banks of the Nile is the oldest civilization in the world.

According to others, the civilization that developed on the banks of the Tigris Euphrates River is the oldest civilization.

In fact, it is a natural thing that one country or nation will highlight its identity.

We know from the scientific practices of Egypt, the country of ancient civilization – at this time, the Egyptians developed quite a

few clear ideas about the two subjects of science and mathematics in Egypt. These two subjects are – Astronomy and Mathematics.

Two things were very important to them.

Due to floods in the Nile River, silt fell over large areas. At that time, geometry and mathematics were needed to fix landmarks.

Apart from this, astronomy was practiced for reasons such as calculating the position of the stars to know in advance when the flood would occur.

The practice of these subjects is mainly limited to practical knowledge. That’s why the Egyptians created roughly a solar calendar.

And they were the first to determine the positions of stars and stars in the sky.

But they didn’t give any new ideas about other things in the world.

But we can see evidence of Egyptian progress in chemistry when we look at their mummy preservation.

On the other hand, the Egyptians achieved great success in mathematics and geometry.

Advances in Science in Greece:

From this point of view, the progress of the ancient Greeks is particularly significant.

This progress not only discovers new theories and facts but also rearranges known theories and facts.

Thales of Miletus was the pioneer of Greek mathematics. He discovered the basic elements

of geometry, such as

1) The diameter of any circle bisects the circle

2) The horizontal angles of an isosceles triangle are equal to each other

3) If two straight lines intersect each other, then the opposite angles are equal to each other.

But Pythagoras was a famous mathematician. During his time much more important work was done on the subject and numbers were widely discussed.

At the time of Pythagoras, mathematicians worked with various formulas of geometry along with various experiments with numbers.

For example, the sum of three angles of a triangle is equal to two right angles or the famous theorem

of Pythagoras – the square on the hypotenuse of A proper triangle is identical to the sum of the squares on the opposite sides.

But Hippocrates is credited with developing geometry as a complete science.

One of the first Greeks to show enthusiasm for biology was the Greek philosopher Anaximander.

He was the first to say about the evolution of the animal world that the evolution of the living world took place depending on survival as a result of environmental factors.

At the time of the origin of life, the entire surface of the Earth was submerged. That is, the ocean was all over the earth’s surface. Late

as the water recedes, some marine animals adapt to the surface environment. And lived as terrestrial animals.

And it is through the evolution of these animals that other animals have appeared. This is also said in modern evolutionary theory.

Ancient science practices of the Greeks
Ancient science practices of the Greeks

More discussion on the Greeks:

However, Darwin’s theory is more explanatory and enriched by experiments and illustrations.

The progress of the Greeks in medicine and herbalism is also remarkable. Empedocles is the pioneer among the Greeks in this regard.

He discovered the circulatory system in the human body and noted the function of the punctate pores in the animal body in respiration.

Alekman, another Greek physician, specialized in surgery.

He discovered the optic nerve glandular etc. of the body and referred to the brain as the center of nerves.

But the most famous Greek physician in medicine is Hippocrates.

This famous scientist pointed to natural causes for the origin of the disease. He said every disease has a natural cause and without this cause, no disease can occur.

In fact, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC it was very dangerous to say such things. Because people then believed that diseases were caused by the anger or curse of the gods.

Hippocrates rejected this blind belief.

Of course, in the field of the science of the Greeks, we notice that there is an attempt to determine some

theories and facts in a systematic manner in all the subjects that were used by people.

In addition, the practice of knowledge about the universe, nature, constellations, and geography is endless.

It was during this time that the Greek theologian Democritus of the 4th and 5th centuries BC promoted atomic theory.

Speaking about the structure of the universe, Democritus said that there is no continuous substance in the material world

but that every object in the material world is made up of tiny particles, and that individual objects have individual particles,

which cannot be broken or disintegrated. He named this particle ‘Atmos’.

Atomic Theory:

The Greek word atmos mean that which cannot be cut or broken. From this word atmos comes the word atom or atom.

The theologian Democritus, however, promoted the atomic theory of the structure of the universe.

However, he could not present any strong arguments in support. Much later, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, scientists elaborated on the atom.

We have said that Mathematics and Astronomy were the most prominent sciences at this time.

Aristarchus was the foremost among astronomers. In the second century BC, Aristarchus said of the fixed stars that they appear so small because they are so far away.

He also mentions the incredible size of the universe. But his notable achievement is that he was the first to postulate that the

Earth and the outer planets revolve around the Sun and revolve around the Sun.

The egocentric method in Aristarchus:

Two other subjects related to astronomy are mathematics and geography. Euclid is the most famous of the Greek mathematicians.

Euclid is called the father of Greek geometry. He actually compiled and elaborated the existing geometry formulas of the period.

Another famous Greek mathematician was Hipparchus. He created the foundations of geometry and trigonometry.

Eratosthenes is famous among Greek geographers. He was an astronomer, poet, linguist and archivist.

With the help of sundials, he made a map of the world and divided the world into different axes and longitudes.

He points out that all the world’s oceans are actually different parts of one ocean. A disciple of Eratosthenes divided the earth into five climatic zones, which are still in use.

He mentioned the position and gravity of the moon as the cause of tides.

Archimedes is famous among Greek physicists. He discovered the theory of the relative importance of matter and discovered various other mechanical processes.


The practice of science in Greece is not entirely Greek. As a result of the Greek military campaigns in

different countries, the Greeks became familiar with the knowledge and science of various countries in the East and the

West, and through this introduction, they developed their own science.

Who is the founder of science? Part: 1

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