Who is the Founder of Science: Part-03
Science is improving our quality of life. The whole world is now within our reach.
Let’s go back a little 50 years from today and see how much of a gap there is between today and the past.
Indeed, a much greater gap can be observed.
No one wants to know where science came from!!
Who first brought this science?
Since when did the thought come to people’s minds that such a science city of
modern civilization will be established all over the world.
This question may not be worth it to everyone.
But if you think about it, you have to wonder where the world has gone today!!!
It will surprise the world, even more, when this technology is destroyed one day.
It is true that one day none of these will exist. People will start
moving again in the same way as they did 300/500 years ago.
I will talk about everything slowly. Predictions never lie.
The modern world was not created when those who made such comments made these comments.
How modern is this world today? Even then, everything was known to earlier people.
Ancient Science of Subcontinent:
But the place of India and China is not negligible in the practice of ancient science.
We know about ancient Indian civilization and ancient Chinese civilizations.
Ancient India (modern-day Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan)
made great progress in mathematics, astronomy, herbal medicine, surgery, etc.
The biggest difficulty in this regard is that what little information is being discovered
about Indian science practice these days has not been properly disseminated.
Many believe that Indian sages commented on many of the theories mentioned in modern science.
But the information that is known about ancient Indian science shows that the scientific ideas and
thoughts of that time were mainly bounded by philosophical trends and thoughts and the thought of
separating science from philosophy was not fulfilled. Perhaps ancient Indian science could not go
beyond the confines of theory to practical application, especially as the theoretical application of practical and engineering science was not so great.
However, as far as is known, the script was invented in India in the eighth or seventh century BC, and Bhurjapatra etc. was used as writing paper.
The Vedic period saw remarkable progress in the field of medicine and herbal science.
During this time different medicines were discovered for different ailments and diseases and Indian herbalists performed many important surgeries with great skill.
Their knowledge of the human body was sufficient. Physicians and surgeons were very prominent in society in ancient times.
More about ancient Indian science:
Medicine in ancient India was called Ayurveda because it is the science of health and longevity.
There is no room for doubt about Indian progress in astronomy and mathematics as even the oldest epics ‘Vedas’ are mentioned.
The earth rotates on its own axis and because of this, there is day and night. In fact, although the sun appears to move from
east to west in the sky, it is actually Knitu Surya Stira – this idea was given in the ‘Veda’ scriptures.
But as astronomy gradually drifted towards astrology, the practice of pure astrology was disrupted.
The achievements of Indian mathematicians in the field of mathematics were many.
They used very large numbers. He could complete the calculations with the help of all the numbers.
Apart from the use of decimals, they knew the use of zero. It can be said that the use of this zero has
been taken from the Indians by everyone else. The Indians were not equal to the Greeks in geometry.
But in biology, the progress of Indians surpassed all others.
Ancient Indian texts mention up to 10/23, but Greek texts do not mention numbers larger than 10/4.
Among the ancient Indian mathematicians, the names Aryabhata Varahamihira, Brahmagupta, Sridharacharya, etc. are particularly notable.
Aryabhatta was probably the first scientist to postulate that the earth revolves around the sun and the moon orbits the earth.
This made it possible for him to provide accurate interpretations of solar and lunar eclipses.
He determined the shape of a circle as the ratio of its diameter to its circumference.
Aryabhatta became known and discussed in Greece and Arabia through translation.
Varahamihira was a practiced astrologer and mathematician. He died about 587 AD.
Although he practiced mathematics, algebra, and astronomy, he was actually the creator of algebra.
Every method of algebra has its own definite form. His algebra, translated into Arabic, enriched Arabic algebra, and from
In Arabic texts, the practice of modern algebra began in Europe. Sridharacharya
distinguished polynomials from algebra and perhaps the first detailed discussion of zero.
Among other branches of science like physics, chemistry, engineering, and architecture, chemistry and architecture
mainly flourished in ancient India. The practice of chemistry through metallurgy, alloy and slag preparation, extraction of iron,
distillation, and distillation, etc. was also quite advanced. Among the ancient Indian alchemists, the name Nagarjuna is notable.
It is clear that ancient India was quite advanced in architecture by looking at ancient temples, palaces, monasteries, and Buddhist stupas.
It goes without saying that special knowledge and experience in technical and mechanical engineering are
essential for such construction techniques. In Adi Suryasiddhartha, the components of
instrument making, various techniques of instrument making, and instrument making are described.
Varahamihira is said to have made fundamental contributions to sculpture and architecture.
Ancient Chinese Science:
We discuss the scientific practices of Egypt, Greece, and ancient India. This time I will try to know something about
ancient Chinese scientific practice. One thing must be said here, the level of science and technology reached in ancient
China was not as advanced as anywhere else in the world. But China was far away from the amazing new
expeditions that began in the European scientific world in the seventeenth century.
There is a proverb – go to the prosperous country of China in search of knowledge.
China was a pioneer in real science during the Middle Ages. Although we say that the word papyrus, which the
Egyptians used to write on, comes from the word papyrus in English. In fact, the paper we use is very similar to the paper used by the Chinese.
The Chinese were the first to discover the process of making paper from bamboo and paper.
And from this, it can be easily guessed that the writing system was invented by the Chinese a long time ago.
In fact, in the 14th century, the lacquer method began to be used in China with the help of pictures.
The ancient Chinese medical system is also well known today. Chinese medicine developed in the shadow of Indian Ayurveda.
This method was mainly based on herbalism. In the early days, simple surgery was also practiced and a
drug was used to anesthetize the patient. However, due to Confucianism’s opposition to necropsy, the practice of necropsy
later came to a halt. Then acupuncture treatment with the help of pulses and needles became the main
subject of Chinese doctors. 300 plants and 36 minerals were listed for herbal use.
No one can deny the progress and innovation of the Chinese in technology. Between 220-280 AD,
circular saws were invented in China, and paper became widely used. On the other hand, the Chinese
knew addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and fractions, and square roots, etc. In geometry, they knew
how to determine points, lines, and area and volume. In the middle of the second century AD, the
Chinese mathematician Chou Kung provided the fundamental proof of the Pythagorean theorem.
Also, Liu Hui and Shun Su were two major mathematicians of ancient China. There is evidence from the writings on
mathematics that algebra and geometry were widely practiced in China at this time. On the other hand, lunar
eclipses and solar eclipses are mentioned in the practice of astrology before the twelfth century BC, and
various ancient sources also mention the completion of the year in 365/1-4 days. From this, it is not
difficult to understand that the Chinese knew a lot of important information about the various
planets and the rotation and position of the sun and the moon. Documents from the 2nd century
AD mention watermills and seismographs. Besides, around 725 AD, the way to invent
mechanical clocks was also opened with the discovery of small mechanical wheels.
The Chinese achievements in fine craftsmanship were astounding.
Later the Chinese could not associate themselves with the advancement of science.
As has happened in the same way in Greek science.
Historians of science say that China’s education system is responsible for this.
The Chinese, however, applied technology to their various activities.
However, this application of them is not justified from the point of view of scientific consciousness.
The education system of ancient China was limited to literature and philosophy.
And the bureaucratic governance system of the Chinese Empire was developed by giving priority to these two issues.
They were trapped in their traditional customs.
They had no attempt to think of anything new or novel.
However, modern China today is again progressing rapidly in the practice of knowledge science.
Who is the Founder of Science: Part-01
Who is the Founder of Science: Part-02